Date of Conferral







David Banner


The landscape industry in the United States suffers higher turnover among middle management positions. Upper management does not know why this is occurring and currently has no strategy to deal with it. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons for high turnover among middle managers and explore the ways to reduce turnover. Reducing turnover may help with the stability of the landscape industry and increase employee retention. Conceptual framework for this study included Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Herzberg's two factor theory, situational theory, and contingency theory. This qualitative exploratory case study addressed the reasons for high turnover of middle managers and the strategies that might prevent high turnover in landscape industry. Three cases were selected, and each case included a sample of 5 middle managers in addition to publicly available company archival information. Middle managers were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Archival data were used to achieve data saturation. Thematic analysis reviled the following results. The findings indicate that middle managers typically perceive that stress to sell and loss of contracts cause turnover. By creating strategies to reduce stress and manage contract loss, upper management may reduce turnover. The implications for social change include increased viability of landscape companies, which could result in decreased unemployment and increased quality of life for middle managers within the industry.