Date of Conferral







Kimberley Cox


Collective efficacy, time urgency, and health literacy have been a focus of research since the 1970s. Researchers have demonstrated that these factors influence health and decision making. However, researchers have yet to establish how these factors may be connected to the achievement of policy aims that impact holistic or environmental health. This study utilized the health belief model, social cognitive theory, time urgency theory, health education and promotion theory, Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, and the Meikirch model. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if the factors of collective efficacy, perceived time urgency, perceived health literacy, ethnicity, age, gender, perceived financial strain, and/or educational level are associated with the perception of the likelihood of reaching 100% renewable energy in North Hawaii County (Hawaii Island) by the year 2045, referred to as REHI45. A sample of 136 residents of North Hawaii County completed a survey to measure these factors. A multiple linear regression analysis was run to test relationships among the variables. Results revealed that collective efficacy, perceived time urgency, and perceived health literacy were significantly associated with the perceived likelihood of REHI45. These findings may inform the design of intervention programs and/or preventative measures to promote overall long-term health and positive social change in North Hawaii County. Individuals, organizations, institutions, cultures, and societies may benefit from the results of this study through its ability to raise awareness of factors that influence the perceived likelihood of achieving REHI45.