Date of Conferral





Counselor Education and Supervision


Laura R. Haddock


The goal of this nonexperimental quantitative research study was to determine if the professional identity of a counselor educator (CE) predicted their perceived importance of professional advocacy. Social identity theory (SIT) constituted the framework for this study, which asked whether CEs would follow the established norms of the dominant professional group and thus consistently perceive the importance of professional advocacy. The Professional Counselor Advocacy Inventory (PCAI) was used to measure CEs' perceptions. The data of 92 participants were analyzed in SPSS 21 using an ordinal regression. Specialization, age, gender, primary setting, and years of experience were the predictor variables, and multiple elements of perceived importance were the outcome variables. While CEs overwhelmingly agreed that professional advocacy as a general concept was important as indicated by majority responses, there was less agreement on the importance of other elements, particularly concerning insurance coverage and job attainment. Of the five predictor variables examined, only gender and age produced significant results on study inquiries related to insurance, employment, and self-advocacy. The findings do not support SIT in the context of professional advocacy among CEs and additional research may be needed to determine if other variables predict the level of importance CEs assign to professional advocacy. As the results of this study demonstrated only age and gender produced a significant effect, this research could contribute to social change by sparking conversation about advocacy patterns and efforts in CEs, which may ultimately contribute to policy change and improve the reputation of the counseling and counselor education fields for its members and clients.