Date of Conferral



Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.)


Information Systems and Technology


Gwendolyn Dooley


The decline in the number of customers in the private country club (PCC) industry in the United States is causing a reduction of revenues, which inhibits the sustainability of the clubs. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore marketing innovation strategies (MIS) that Arizona PCC managers used to attract and retain customers successfully. Relationship marketing theory was the conceptual framework; key constructs of the theory include customer loyalty, service quality, experience satisfaction, trust, and communication. The study explored successful MIS that PCC managers have used to attract and retain customers to prevent closure. Participants consisted of 1 manager from 4 different PCCs in Arizona who used MIS successfully to attract and retain customers. Data were collected from semistructured, open-ended interviews and from marketing documents and website content. Data were analyzed using a 6-phase approach to thematic analysis. The 3 primary themes that emerged included broadening the marketing message to entice people to frequent the club; creating experiences that rated high in satisfaction by members, guests, and employees; and using a variety of communication media. The results of this study may contribute to positive social change by helping PCCs to remain in operation, which could benefit local communities by providing employment opportunities at the clubs and venues for local charities to raise funds.