Date of Conferral





Public Health


Nicoletta Alexander


Diabetes is an epidemic that has started to capture political attention in the United States because of the devastating health care costs associated with the disease. Researchers in other studies have concluded that additional education face-to-face (FTF) and FTF with alternative forms of diabetes communication (FTF plus) have been beneficial. However, there is very little information on the comparison of the two groups as mentioned above when comparing chronic limitations, self-perception, health status, and healthcare satisfaction as circumscribed by specific demographic population. This study was an investigation of the above variables and explored how specific demographic characteristics (age, gender, educational level, and race/ethnic background) may have an identifiable association with each diabetes education type, either FTF or FTF plus. This research involved the use of the social cognitive theory and the health belief model to help explain self-care behavior changes. This quantitative, cross-sectional study used secondary data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey for analysis. A simple linear regression was used to understand health status and healthcare satisfaction. A logistical regression was used for chronic limitations, while controlling for demographics for all the variables. The study revealed FTF plus had an association with chronic limitations with race and education level, but age was not significant. After controlling for demographics, a person who has FTF plus has decreased odds of having chronic limitations, in comparison to someone who receives only FTF. The results from this study may aid formulation of future healthcare policies that focus on how to refer patients to multiple forums of diabetes education, while reducing healthcare costs.