Date of Conferral

2018

Degree

Ph.D.

School

Public Health

Advisor

Manoj Sharma

Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Tables�����������������������������v

List of Figures vii

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study 1

Background 1

Problem Statement 2

Purpose of Study 4

Research Questions 4

Theoretical Framework 5

Nature of the Study 6

Definitions of Terms 7

Significance of the Study 9

Assumptions 10

Limitations 10

Delimitations 11

Summary 11

Chapter 2: Literature Review 13

Literature Search Strategy 15

Epidemiology of Obesity Risk Factors 16

Social Cognitive Theory and Health Behavior 20

Television Watching 25

Physical Activity 29

Dietary 33

Eating More Fruits 35

Serving More Vegetables per Day 36

Water Consumption 37

Summary 39

Chapter 3: Research Method 41

Validity of the Instrument 42

Research Design Rationale 42

Data Collection 43

Instrumentation and Operationalization of Constructs 44

Description of Dependent and Independent Variables 44

Dependent Variable 44

Independent Variables (key variables of interest) 46

How the Range of the Research Variables Were Computed 48

Independent Variables (Used as Covariates): 51

Research Questions, Associated Variables, and Statistical Analysis Procedures 52

Analysis Software and Subject Protection 54

Missing Data 54

Storage of Research Data 54

Summary 55

Chapter 4: Data Collection and Analysis 56

Analysis of Missing Data 56

Outcome of Analysis Based on the Research Questions 60

Demographics 60

Research Question 2 66

Research Question 3 68

Research Question 4 71

Research Question 5 74

Findings Regarding Social Construct Theory Measures 79

Self-efficacy for Overcoming Barriers 79

Findings Regarding Covariates 80

Physical Activity 81

Healthy Eating 82

Chapter 5: Conclusions, Recommendations, Limitations 83

Interpretation of the Findings 84

Limitations 88

Recommendations 89

Implications for Social Change 90

Conclusion 92

References 94

Appendix A: The Questionnaire 98

Appendix B: Student Assent Form 111

Appendix C 116

Model Selection and Verification of Model Assumptions 116

Appendix D: Code Book 129

List of Tables

Table 1. Description of Five Behaviors of Interest Used as Dependent Variables 29

Table 2 Description of the Four Social Cognitive Constructs Used as Independent

Variables 30

Table 3. Description of Independent Variables Used as Covariates 33

Table 4. Summary of Missing Values 37

Table 5. Participants by Gender and Age 38

Table 6. Expectation Measures Related to Question 1 Responses 38

Table 7. Multiple Regression Analysis for Watching Television Within the Prior

24 Hours (n=215) 40

Table 8. Multiple Regression Analysis for Watching Television Within the past

24 Hours (n=215) 41

Table 9. Time Spent Watching Television (Reference Category -Female 41

Table 10. Multiple Regression Analysis for Time Spent on Physical Activity Within

the Prior 24 Hours (n=215) 42

Table 11. Multiple Regression Analysis for Time Spent on Physical Activity Within

the Past 24 Hours (n=215) 42

Table 12. Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals 43

Table 13. Multiple Regression Analysis for Number of Glasses of Water consumed

in the Prior 24 Hours (n=215) 44

Table 14. Multiple Regression Analysis for Number of Glasses of Water consumed

in the Prior 24 Hours (n=215) 45

Table 15. Multiple Regression Analysis for Number of Glasses of Water consumed

in the Past 24 Hours (n=215) 46

Table 16. Multiple Regression Analysis Summary for Consumption of fruits

and Vegetables 46

Table 17. The Logistic Regression on Portion size 47

Table 18. Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals for the Association Between

Variables of Interest and Meal Portion 48

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List of Figures

Figure 1. Overall Summary of missing variables, cases, and value 37

Figure 2. Analysis of missing value patterns

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