Date of Conferral

2018

Degree

Ph.D.

School

Public Health

Advisor

Vasileios Margaritis

Abstract

Insulin resistance is an increasing public health issue with the current literature, suggesting reduced sensitivity of insulin leads to adult onset diabetes and associated downstream pathologies that reduce life expectancy. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability of the Oral Glucose Insulin Secretion Test (OGIST) to identify insulin resistance and examine differences in the insulin sensitivity based on gender, age, and ethnicity. This study was supported by the insulin resistance theory which focuses on the reduced ability of insulin to bind to the cellular insulin receptor, reducing the sensitivity of insulin. The OGIST lab results of a total of 250 patients, aged 18â??65, were included in this study from a major city in the midwestern United States. Binomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between the dependent variables and the validation independent variables and analyze the possible differences seen in insulin, proinsulin, C-peptide, and HbA1c with age. The OGIST demonstrated the ability to identify elevated levels of insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide at the end of the first phase insulin secretion to glucose. The results of this study demonstrated patients with insulin resistance exhibited a greater reduction in insulin production with age compared to those without insulin resistance. There were no changes observed between gender or ethnicity. The OGIST was the only test that demonstrated the ability to identify the individual's insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and progression to diabetes. The ability of the OGIST to identify both insulin resistance and β-cell function can contribute to positive social change by encouraging further research for the early diagnosis and treatment of insulin resistance and the reduction in adult onset diabetes.

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