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In today's classrooms, many teachers meet students' reading needs by providing guided reading. However, little is known about how teachers combine student data and pedagogical content knowledge to plan guided readings lessons. This study focused on understanding how elementary teachers use guided reading pedagogical content knowledge and student data when planning a guided reading lesson. The conceptual framework was based on Fountas and Pinnell's guided reading framework, and Clay's theory of data collection with respect to literacy processing. The research questions concerned how teachers' use, guide, and reflect on guided reading pedagogical content knowledge and students data when planning a guided reading lesson. A qualitative study using both phenomenological and case study aspects was utilized to capture insights of elementary teachers from a successful Title 1 school. This study included a single elementary school. Participants included 10 elementary teachers from grades K-5. Data sources included introductory and follow-up teacher interviews as well as teacher lesson plans. Data were analyzed using coding for identification of patterns. The findings revealed that teachers believe their success lies in searching for the right books use to differentiate their guided reading instruction based on each student's individual data. They also believe their success comes from providing background knowledge to students when teaching guided reading lessons to pique their students interest and help them better understand what they are reading. This study can contribute to positive social change by providing administration insights to how to prepare high quality professional development to help teachers plan guided reading lessons.