Date of Conferral







Carolyn Davis


Although the use of monetary incentives as motivational tools has been studied by previous researchers, the mechanism of the relationship between monetary incentives and behavior/performance remains poorly understood. The purpose of this quasi-experimental investigation was to explore the relationship between 3 levels of monetary incentives ($0, $3, and $10) and the athletic performance of adolescent male soccer players. The moderating effect of perceived physical self-efficacy or intrinsic motivation on the relationship between athletic performance and monetary incentives was also investigated. The framework for the study was comprised of expectancy theory, the theory of planned behavior, and self-determination theory. Study participants included a convenience sample of 16 adolescent male soccer players between the ages of 11 and 13 who played on a youth soccer league in the Midwestern United States. The independent variable was level of monetary incentive, and the dependent variable was athletic performance (time on the 50-yard dash). Intrinsic motivation was assessed using the Sport Motivation Scale. Perceived physical self-efficacy was assessed via participants' scores on the Physical Self-Efficacy Scale for Children. Analysis, which included a repeated measures linear mixed-effects model and post-hoc pairwise comparisons, revealed that players' athletic performance increased as monetary incentives increased. Intrinsic motivation and perceived physical self-efficacy had no statistically significant interaction effect on the relationship between athletic performance and monetary incentives. Findings shed light on the potential usefulness of monetary incentives among male adolescents, and may be used by coaches to foster a mindset of achievement and goal-orientation.