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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are 2 chronic diseases with common risk factors related to physical inactivity, obesity, and diet. Literature on T2DM as a risk factor for CRC development and survival in Oman is scarce. Using de-identified archival data provided by Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) Oman, a retrospective, case-control, and time-to-event study designs were used to compare odds of developing CRC, and survival rates among adults with and without T2DM. The ecosocial theory provided the theoretical base for this research. Logistic regression was used to examine the odds of developing CRC among 114 cases versus 170 hospital controls. The Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare survival rates among 228 CRC cases by T2DM status and survival rates by T2DM status across strata of gender, age group, and tumor location and cancer stage. According to the study findings, after having adjusted for potential confounding variables, there was no association between T2DM and odds of developing CRC (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 0.29-7.68, p = 0.64) or between T2DM and CRC survival rates (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.65 -1.75, p = 0.80). There was also no association between T2DM and CRC survival rates across the strata of potential effect modifiers examined. This research could contribute to positive social change by creating awareness among policy makers that will provide them with information on CRC risk-reduction strategies in the Omani population.