Date of Conferral





Health Services


Jacqueline Fraser


HIV-positive, Asian Pacific Islander (API) men who have sex with men (MSM) experience triple minority stigma including HIV, sexual orientation, and minority ethnicity. To date, there is no research that examines the influence of cultural factors, level of acculturation, social determinants of health, and other confounding variables (e.g., age, education, level of income, and length of time since diagnosis) on HIV-positive disclosure behaviors, attitudes, and intentions to casual sexual partners for API MSM. The theoretical framework for this study was based on Hofstede's original cultural values and Triandis's cultural dimensions. In this 2-phase, mixed methods, sequential explanatory study, 24 API MSM participants who are members of Fridae and other API organizations in the United States completed an anonymous online survey and 8 participants in Southern California completed in-depth semistructured phenomenological qualitative interviews. None of the regressions produced significant findings at the requested significance level (i.e., p < 0.5). The findings from the 2 phases of the study were integrated to facilitate a deeper, richer, and better understanding and explanation of those results than either approach alone. This mixed methods study was unique because it addressed an under-researched and poorly understood population of API MSM. The findings from this study have implications for positive social change for practitioners to incorporate culturally sensitive counseling strategies and for policymakers to develop or modify existing HIV preventive health education and health promotion programs for HIV-positive API MSM to negotiate safer sex behaviors, improve well-being, provide informed choice, and protect life that would promote competent quality care.