Date of Conferral







Henry Alexander, Ph. D.



An Investigation into the Affect of the BorgWarner System 80 Machine on the Reading Program of Selected Primary Students.


Measured the effect of individualized phonics instruction presented by teaching machine upon a group of low achieving kindergarten children.


Four kindergarten classes in a suburban elementary school were screened thru the use of a phonics inventory. The lowest achieving children were assigned to a daily tutorial lesson on Borg-Warner’s System 80 Audio-Visual Unit. The other children in the kindergarten classes proceeded with their normal classroom activities. At the end of nine weeks, the phonics inventory was re-administered and the achievement of the System 80 users was compared to the performance of the non-users.

Results and Conclusions

Eighteen Ss in the E group completed at least one level of Phonics during the nine week period. Eight Ss completed two levels. In comparing the performance of the E group who had completed one level against the performance of the C group (85 Ss) it was found that both made gains that were statistically significant (.01 level). However, the experimental group rate of gain was higher than the control group rate. When comparing the E groups performance to the lowest quartile of the control group the following results were obtained:

1. On the pretest the C group's scores were significantly higher (at .01 level)

2. On the post-test the E group "closed the gap” in that difference in performances was not significant.

In analyzing the performance of the E group which completed two levels of the machine presented Phonics, the following was found: Comparing E group performance against total C group performance.

1. E group scored significantly higher in pretest (.01 level).

2. Post-test differences were not significant.

In comparing E group performance against the lowest quartile of the Control Group, the E group actually "crossed over” i.e. the E group's post-test scores were higher than the C groups. Although in the pretest, the E group had performed significantly lower (. 01 level).