Date of Conferral
Mary L. Gutierrez
An estimated 215,000 children and adolescents younger than 20 years old were diagnosed with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes in 2011. Management of children with Type 2 diabetes requires 24-hour care provided by health care providers, parents, and school nurses. Guided by the health belief model (HBM), the purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore and describe beliefs, attitudes, and practices of school nurses who manage children with Type 2 diabetes. A pilot study with 2 nurses was conducted to finalize interview guide. Volunteer school nurses were recruited through an e-mail announcement from their school district. Face-to-face, in-depth interviews with 10 female school nurses were conducted. School nurse work experience ranged from 4 to 20 years, selected from 4 school districts, including 8 European, 1 Asian, and 1 Hispanic American. Transcripts from digitally recorded interviews were analyzed using NVivo software version 11. Thematic analysis led to 5 themes of communication, education, management, perceived barriers (multiple schools assigned/student demand), and enablers (school aides). Individually and collectively, themes reflect a synergistic positive attitude in management of children with Type 2 diabetes. HBM constructs elucidated school nurses' behaviors and attitudes regarding severity and susceptibility to illness, benefits students received from preventive care, and barriers they encountered. The positive implications for social change include recommendations for increasing the number of school nurses per district to meet the demand in managing children with chronic diseases, and intensification of positive attitude interventions in diabetes management.