Date of Conferral







Lee Lee


Although women represent more than half of the U.S. population, in 2015 women held less than 25% of senior-level positions, and less than 5% of executive positions in corporate America. The underrepresentation of women in leadership position is partially attributable to a lack of role models, mentoring, and networking programs needed to develop women executives and senior-managers. The purpose of this quantitative, comparative, field survey study was to examine the differences in the availability of mentoring, networking, and role modeling opportunities between men and women in management positions, and to explore causes of such differences. The attribution theory was used as a framework to gain a better understanding of what men and women perceive to be the underlying success factors leading to their roles as managers. The Career Competencies Indicator survey instrument was adapted and used to collect data from a random sample of 175 participants (85 men, 90 women) in managerial positions in corporate America. Correlation analysis and independent samples t tests were used to test 3 hypotheses. The results indicated significant gender differences in the availability of professional mentoring and role-modeling opportunties for career success in management positions in corporate America, but no significant gender differences in the availability of networking opportunities. Positive social change implicatons include opportunities for corporations and organizations to create mentoring and role modeling opportunties for women who aspire to excel to senior management and executive positions in for-profit companies.

Included in

Accounting Commons