Date of Conferral



Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




Debra Beebe


A training program was established in the Midwestern United States to help employers understand compliance requirements of the health insurance industry. The purpose of this study was to conduct a modified program evaluation of the effectiveness of Pay or Play, a portion of a larger Benefit Compliance Program. The reason for the evaluation was the high percentage of remediation needed for administrators of employee health insurance following Pay or Play seminar sessions, which posed the question of program effectiveness in education of participants. This study is important because administrators of employee health insurance are responsible for understanding compliance regulations and face penalties for noncompliance. The theoretical frameworks of constructivism, andragogy, and critical thinking and the conceptual framework of responsive program evaluation were used to guide the study. Document analysis of seminar materials and interviews were conducted with a sample of 12 volunteer seminar participants needing remediation from the school administration and business. Interviews and documents were manually coded and analyzed to identify themes. Findings included lack of variety of teaching methods and training materials appropriate for adult learners, a lack of engagement in critical thinking, and a lack of active construction within their own learning. Recommendations were made for changes in the facilitation methods and presentation of materials to support more effective training for adult participants. The implications of this study for positive social change include more effective training of employers on compliance regulations, which could result in greater understanding of government regulations of the health insurance industry, fewer cancellations of insurance coverage, and more effective implementation of benefits policy.