Date of Conferral







Anthony Perry (CommitteeChair)


Walden University

College of Social and Behavioral Sciences

This is to certify that the doctoral dissertation by

Sylvania Ann Jones

has been found to be complete and satisfactory in all respects,

and that any and all revisions required by

the review committee have been made.

Review Committee

Dr. Anthony Perry, Committee Chairperson, Psychology Faculty

Dr. Stephen Burgess, Committee Member, Psychology Faculty

Dr. James Carroll, University Reviewer, Psychology Faculty

Chief Academic Officer

Eric Riedel, Ph.D.

Walden University


Factors Related to Muscle Dysmorphia Symptomology in Adolescent Males


Sylvania Ann Jones

BS, Wayland Baptist University 1999

MA, Wayland Baptist University 2009

MA, Webster University 2006

Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy


Walden University

December 2016

The prevalence of muscle dysmorphia symptomology in adolescent males continues to increase, and yet remains under diagnosed in adolescents, supporting the need for a study to increase the understanding of the factors related to muscle dysmorphia symptomology. The purpose of this quantitative survey research study was to determine variables that predict the muscle dysmorphia symptomology in a nonclinical sample of high school adolescent males. The psycho-behavioral model of muscle dysmorphia was used as the conceptual model to explain the psychological factors such as self-esteem and body dissatisfaction and behavioral factors such as bodybuilding dependence that were hypothesized to be related to muscle dysmorphia. Quantitative surveys included the Body Dysmorphic Examination Self Report, Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Body Building Dependence Scale and a researcher-developed demographic survey. The study participants included a sample of 97 high school males. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relative strength of the variables in predicting muscle dysmorphia. The results showed that there were several significant predictors of muscle dysmorphia symptomology including race/ethnicity, level of body dissatisfaction, and body building dependence. Sexual orientation and self-esteem were not significant predictors of muscle symptomology. The current study filled the gap in the literature regarding factors that predict muscle dysmorphia among adolescent males. This information supports the development of professional practice and psychoeducational programs designed to assist adolescent males with muscle dysmorphia. This study benefits this cohort by presenting awareness of muscle dysmorphia.