Title I and Non-Title I Fourth-Grade Reading and Math Standardized Test Scores
Date of Conferral
Kwabena D. Ofori-Attah
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference between the standardized reading and math test scores of 4th grade students in Title I schools and those in Non-Title I schools, following the implementation of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. This study focused on the following subcategories: male and female students, economically disadvantaged students, and students with disabilities. The results of the study were discussed within the framework of Bandura's social learning theory, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, and Vygotsky's zone of proximal development. This study utilized a retrospective comparative design to gather, analyze, and interpret existing school data on student assessments of reading and math scores of 4th grade students from 86 Title I and 87 Non-Title I elementary schools in 7 Southeastern Virginia school divisions. The data were collected from the 2014 Virginia Standards of Learning assessment test scores. An ANOVA indicated significant differences in standardized reading and math test scores between students in Title I and Non-Title I schools. Non-Title I schools performed higher than Title I schools in the content area of reading in all three subcategories. Non-Title I schools performed higher than Title I schools in the content area of math in all three subcategories. This study contributes to social change by providing a better understanding of the academic differences among students based on their school setting as a result of the implementation of NCLB. The results of this study could motivate school policy makers to reevaluate current educational practices and funding allocations to improve student achievement in Title I schools.