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Advances in surgical technique and medical management have led to fundamental changes in surgical care allowing for a paradigm shift from inpatient to outpatient surgery. Enhanced recovery pathways have moved surgical recovery from inpatient to outpatient settings requiring informal caregiver support. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of caregiver burden in this patient population and to explore whether caregiver burden contributes to preventable use of emergency room services. The conceptual framework supporting this retrospective cross-sectional study was Andersen's behavioral model of health services utilization. Data collected from 28 urologic patient/caregiver pairs were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear and logistic regression. Findings indicated measurable caregiver burden in 2 of the 5 Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA) subscales: impact on schedule and impact on health. Findings also indicated a measurable protective effect of high socioeconomic status of caregivers and the CRA subscale of impact on finances, and a possible protective effect of caregiver self-esteem as measured by the CRA subscale and emergency room utilization within the first 30 days after enhanced recovery surgery. Social change implications include improving the surgical experience of patients and caregivers and enhancing the use of health care resources.