Date of Conferral







Deanna Boddie


Implementation of the common core state standards began in 2010 for public school districts across the United States, and research about the impact of these standards on teaching and learning in smaller rural schools is limited. The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to describe how K-12 English language arts teachers in rural remote schools integrated the common core state standards into curriculum, as defined by Aoki's theory about planned and lived curriculums, which formed the conceptual framework for this research. Participants included 8 K-12 English language arts teachers from 2 rural remote public school districts located in a western state. Research questions addressed curricular and instructional alignment, and data were collected from individual teacher interviews and reflective journals, observations of instructional lessons, and curriculum documents. Data were coded and categorized to determine themes and discrepant data (Charmaz, Merriam, and Miles, Huberman, and Saldaña). A content analysis was used for documents. Results indicate that teachers aligned curriculum with common core state standards by using previously adopted textbooks, developing alignment documents to address standards, creating unit and lesson materials independently, and participating in limited collaborative planning with colleagues. Recommendations include continued investigation into rural teachers' professional development needs, collaborative planning practices, and use of curriculum materials within and across grade levels. This study contributes to positive social change because improved rural education impacts rural remote students, communities, and educators, who play a valuable role in developing a national curriculum.