Date of Conferral



Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.)


Business Administration


Douglas Campbell


Changing regulations, increased competition, and evolving customers' expectations have necessitated significant organizational changes in the health care industry. This multiple case study investigated the strategies of senior managers from 3 California health care organizations to implement significant change initiatives. The participating organizations had a positive reputation for successfully implementing change. Data from interviews and a review of organizational documents were analyzed through the conceptual lens of Lewin's phases of change model and Kotter's 8-step process for implementing change. The analysis revealed 3 general themes: communications, training, and employee involvement. The managers of each participating organization emphasized the importance of keeping employees informed, and the importance of continuous bidirectional communication between all levels of the organization. They emphasized that communication facilitated a smooth and timely implementation of the planned change; they also noted the importance of training to assist employees in adapting to new job requirements and new technology. However, it was noted that the managers did not undergo any formal training in change implementation. Participants also emphasized the importance of employee involvement in the form of consultation concerning aspects of the implementation. Contrary to Lewin and Kotter's assumptions, the employees had no say in the initial decision to change, how to change or when to change. These findings have positive social change implications by assisting managers of health care organizations to improve their strategies for implementing change initiatives.