Date of Conferral





Public Health


Diana Naser


Adventists following a plant-based diet have half the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarian Adventists. This study used a quantitative, correlational study design to assess if there was a significant difference in type 2 diabetes prevalence rate between Adventists and non-Adventists preprogram, and if there were significant differences in biometrics between Adventists and non-Adventists with diabetes pre- and post-Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP). This study incorporated the social ecological model for its conceptual framework and examined pre- and postprogram changes among Adventists (n=210; 20.1%) and non-Adventists (n=836; 79.9%) with type 2 diabetes. It used secondary data from participants in the volunteer-delivered CHIP intervention from 2006 to 2012 (n=7,172), a whole foods, plant-based, vegan health program. Analysis showed a significant difference in the pre-CHIP diabetic state between the two groups in step one, but not after controlling for covariates in step two (OR=0.96 and 0.91; CI=1.21 and 1.24). A repeated measures MANOVA analysis indicated that religious affiliation (Adventist or non-Adventist) was the determining factor in improved biometric outcomes pre- and post-CHIP for TC (F(1) = 5.65; p = 0.02), and LDL (F(1) = 5.76; p = 0.02) but not for HDL (F(1) = 0.00; p = 0.99), TG (F(1) = 0.19, p = 0.67), FPG (F(1) = 2.71, p = 0.10), SBP (F(1) = 2.25; p = 0.13), DBP (F(1) = 1.20; p = 0.27), and BMI (F(1) = 1.65; p = 0.20). However, both groups improved post-CHIP in all biometrics. The implications for positive social change from this study showed that CHIP is an effective lifestyle model for improving type 2 diabetes outcomes for both Adventists and non-Adventists, a model that does not involve the use of pharmaceuticals.