Date of Conferral



Doctor of Public Health (DrPH)


Health Services


Vibha Kumar


Immunization remains one of the most successful and cost-effective public health interventions worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the individual and socioeconomic factors that influence childhood immunization coverage in Nigeria. The health belief model and the social ecological model were used as the theoretical framework for the study, which examined the effects of individual, parental, and socioeconomic factors on complete immunization among Nigerian children. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate tests were conducted within a secondary analysis of 2013 Nigerian National Demographic and Health Survey was done. Of 27,571 children aged 0 to 59 months, 22.1% had full vaccination and 29% never received any vaccination. Immunization coverage was significantly related to the socioeconomic status of the child's parents, region, and marital status (p < 0.00). Similarly, child birth order, delivery place, child number, and presence or absence of child health card in the family were significantly related to the level of immunization (p < 0.00). Maternal age, geographical location, education, religion, literacy, wealth index, marital status, and occupation were significantly associated with immunization coverage. Respondent's age, educational attainment, and wealth index remained significantly related to immunization coverage at 95% confidence interval in multivariate analysis. Implications for positive social change include evidence on hindrances to successful immunization programs and relevant information for a more effective, efficient, sustainable and acceptable immunization program for the stakeholders in Nigeria.