Date of Conferral



Doctor of Public Health (DrPH)


Health Services


Wen-Hung Kuo


Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) contributes to metabolic disorders and the growing prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Hypertension, obesity, and hyperglycemia (components of MetS) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that HIV patients on HAART have a 2-fold risk of dying from MetS. There are no such studies in Umuahia; hence the need for this study to fill this gap. Using a sample size of 192 medical records of HIV-infected patients in Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, and applying metabolic syndrome theory, this study examined the relationships among types of HAART regimen, duration of HAART and hypertension, obesity, and hyperglycemia among HIV-infected adult patients. The records were stratified into 4 by duration of HAART. Chi-square test was used to determine associations between the nonparametric variables, whereas multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios. Odds of hypertension were more than 18-fold (OR = 18.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.464, 42.50) at >12 months on HAART, whereas odds of obesity was more than 5-fold (OR = 5.43, 95% CI = 2.227, 13.158) at >12 months. Odds of hyperglycemia were more than 14-fold at >12 months compared with <12 months on HAART. Statistical significance was achieved with duration of HAART for hypertension and hyperglycemia (p < .05) but none with types of HAART (p < .05). Being male, older age, and duration of HAART were associated with odds of metabolic syndrome components. This knowledge provides a base for population-based intervention programs for the HIV-positive population undergoing antiretroviral therapy in the Umuahia metropolis.