Date of Conferral



Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.)




Dr. Beverly Muhammad


Business leaders often leave more than half of the world's population the bottom of the pyramid (BOP), a $5-trillion market of potential consumers untapped for products and services on account of failing to see BOP markets as profitable for business, yet business leaders who have managed inclusive BOP marketing in Nigeria have experienced profit margins as high as 120%. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore strategies of business leaders who market to BOP consumers in Nigeria and maintain a profit. The study population consisted of 3 business leaders in the Dallas and Fort Worth metropolitan area who marketed to BOP consumers in Nigeria and maintained a profit. The conceptual framework that grounded the study was BOP marketing theory. Data were collected through semistructured in-depth interviews and company documents, with member checking implemented to strengthen creditability and trustworthiness. Based on the methodological triangulation of the data sources collected, 3 emergent themes were identified following 5 stages of data analysis. The themes were (a) maintain low profit margins in marketing essential items to the BOP in Nigeria, (b) maintain high profit margins in marketing to the non-BOP in Nigeria, and (c) market scaled-down products to the BOP in Nigeria. The findings from this study may contribute to social change by providing insights and strategies for business leaders seeking to prepare for and sustain profitability. The data from this study may contribute to higher profit margins for business leaders as well as job placement and entrepreneurship opportunities for the communities of Nigeria.