Date of Conferral



Doctor of Public Health (DrPH)


Health Services


Dr. Frazier Beatty


According to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), approximately 1.3 million U.S. residents are residing in nursing homes. CMS enforced regulations in the Nursing Home Reform Act. Training in the use of restraints in nursing homes is monitored through the CMS standards. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between training standards of health care practitioners and their use of restraints in nursing homes based on the patterns of citations by RNs and CNAs. Data were collected from Kansas, Louisiana, and Ohio within the CMS Nursing Home Data Compendium. The key research question examined differences in standard training requirements, policies, and citations regarding restraint use in the selected states. The theoretical framework for this study was the social influence theory. The results of the analysis of variance indicated that between 2008 and 2012, there were significant differences in policy and standards requirements for the training of registered nurses and certified nursing assistants regarding restraint use; there was also a relationship between the training of staff and the number of citations of restraint use in Kansas, Louisiana, and Ohio. There were significant (p < .02) variations throughout the 3 states regarding the policies, procedures, and training expectations. The positive social change that could result from these findings is the standardization of training that may help decrease restraint use and become the foundation of more respectful and caring practices in nursing homes.