Date of Conferral
Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.)
Survival of small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) is a critical issue for business leaders. The Ghana Statistical Service reported that over 60% of SMEs, including Ghanaian small and medium scale private basic schools, fail during their first 5 years of operation. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore the transformational leadership skills that proprietors of Ghanaian small and medium scale private basic schools have used to enhance employee performance for sustainability beyond 5 years. The conceptual framework for this study was Bass and Avolio's transformational leadership theory. Data collection included semistructured interviews to elicit narratives from 3 proprietors from 3 different Ghanaian private basic schools about what leadership skills they used to enhance employee performance. Data also came from a review of relevant school documents and a reflective journal. The data were analyzed with Yin's 5-step data analysis technique. Data analysis included identification of key themes and triangulation of data from interviews and relevant school documents. The main themes revealed that leaders used idealized influence, inspirational motivation, and intellectual stimulation to enhance employee performance for sustainability of the schools. Findings indicate school leaders can enhance employee performance when they adopt transformational leadership, particularly when leaders articulate a clear vision, encourage teamwork, and involve followers in decision-making. Social implications include helping proprietors of Ghanaian private basic schools enhance employee performance for sustainability beyond 5 years to improve student education, enhance employment, and contribute to improved living standards.