Date of Conferral



Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.)




Denise Land


In the health and human service industry, employee turnover affects business practices and causes disruption of the lives of vulnerable individuals with intellectual disabilities receiving support. Using a human capital conceptual framework perspective, the purpose of this multiple case study was to explore strategies used to increase employee retention. The criteria for participation included organizational leaders from 3 Pennsylvania human service agencies that supported individuals with intellectual disabilities, tracked employee turnover for at least 2 years, and developed strategies to increase employee retention. Organizational leaders volunteered to participate and the first 3 organizations meeting the criteria were selected. Data collection included semistructured telephone interviews with organizational leaders, in addition to a review of company policies and turnover data. The interviews were transcribed and participants were asked to member check the draft findings. Constant comparison analysis occurred to analyze collected data. The findings included that the human capital theory alone did not inform retention strategies. Reoccurring themes included retention strategies that focused on developing the organization's intellectual capital through development of human capital, structural capital, and relational capital. Organizational leaders could develop intellectual capital to reduce employee turnover costs, increase employee productivity, create a stable life for the individuals in need of support, and develop relationships with the community where integration occurs. The implications for positive social change include the potential to reduce employee turnover to organizational leaders from Pennsylvania agencies supporting individuals with intellectual disabilities.

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