Date of Conferral





Social Work


Mary Bold


The role strain caused by the multiple roles of some women can impact their stress levels and health outcomes, which negatively affects reported subjective well-being (SWB). The culture and race of African American women has a complex effect on how they experience stress and manage their health. Some research shows the harmful rippling effect of stress for African American women is distinct from other racial groups and men. The purpose of this quantitative archival study was to understand how the SWB of African American women can be predicted by their age, years of education, household income, number of children, and marital, parental, and employment statuses. The theoretical foundation was role strain theory. The archival data set of The National Survey of American Life: Coping with Stress in the 21st Century provided data from African American female respondents ages 18 to 44, (n = 1,877). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that when combined in 2 models; marital, parental, and employment statuses (Model 1) and the remaining four variables (Model 2) were statistically significant predictors of SWB. Separately, parental status, age, years of education, and number of children were not statistically significant predictors of SWB. This study showed that married parents who were employed had higher SWB which suggests increased access to resources. Research shows higher socioeconomic status is correlated to higher SWB. Increased resources may help to reduce the additive impact of juggling multiple roles. This study will contribute to social change by educating women on the connections between balancing roles and happiness and encourage them to negotiate roles and duties to reduce stress and improve their health outcomes.