Date of Conferral







Ruby Burgess


This sequential mixed methods study addressed the need for research that both described and explained how teachers of varying experience respond to administrative evaluative feedback. Formative evaluation theory of Scriven and professional growth models of Steffy and Fessler served as theoretical models for data analysis. An online survey asking teachers how they changed their practices and what accounted for their response was received from 270 teachers in 1 Midwestern state. Of these, 9 teachers of varying experience were interviewed. The quantitative data showed that most teachers do not change practices on the 8 state teaching standards in response to feedback. An independent sample t test revealed statistically significant differences between teachers of varying experience in 3 standards: support of district goals, classroom management, and instruction. . An ANOVA found no significant effect between teaching experience and the length of time since the feedback was provided to the teacher. Qualitative data found a variety of social, personal, organizational, and student-based needs that accounted for teachers' response to feedback. In teachers that made changes to practices, administrator suggestion was the most important factor, but conversations with colleagues were also important. However, most teachers did not receive formative feedback. Organizational factors such as state initiatives to change instruction influenced teachers of more experience than novice teachers. These findings can help administrators improve the formative effect of their feedback. Understanding how evaluative feedback leads to changes in teaching practices should improve feedback systems in schools across the nation which subsequently should lead to in more effective teaching practices.