Date of Conferral



Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




Susan Adragna


Researchers have described how a missing element in instructional services for English language learners is effective collaboration between general education and English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) teachers. This collaboration is vital to the success of English language learners. This multisite case study was designed to gain insight into current practices and how to improve collaboration between educators in a way that improves instructional services for English language learners. Knowles' theory of andragogy, the transfer of learning theory, and constructivism were used as a basis for analyzing educators' perspectives and instructional practices. Two sites were selected for the study-one that implemented pull-out services for ESOL students and one that implemented coteaching. Data included individual interviews with 24 educators and 17 observations of lessons within the classroom. Data were open coded and thematically analyzed. Results from the interviews indicated that coteaching was perceived by teachers as beneficial in improving instructional practices for English language learners when educators participate in structured planning with face-to-face communication. Observation findings included similarities between the content, delivery, and format of instruction between schools, which indicated the potential success of implementing coteaching in the school that initially implemented pull-out services. This study may be beneficial to schools and districts seeking to transition from the format of pull-out instructional services to more inclusive models.