Date of Conferral







Alen Badal


Passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) in 2010 prompted the question of how independent businesses may react to the employer mandate in the PPACA. The law is based on the theory of managed competition and it is more likely to affect businesses with fewer employees than to affect larger businesses that already offer health insurance. The purpose of this quantitative, pre-experimental study was to examine the strategic responses of independent retail business owners in Hillsborough County, Florida, regarding their perceptions of the employer mandate in the PPACA. Before 2014, there was a great deal of non-peer-reviewed literature in which researchers made predictions about the PPACA and independent business perceptions regarding the new law. To determine independent business owners' perceptions of and strategies for addressing the PPACA, a random sample of 309 independent retail businesses in Hillsborough County was invited by e-mail to participate in an online survey. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t tests for hypothesis testing, and chi-square goodness-of-fit analyses to confirm the results without using means. None of the alternative hypotheses were supported, indicating that the PPACA may not have an adverse effect on job creation for independent retail businesses in Hillsborough County. The findings of this study can indirectly promote positive social change by communicating to independent business owners and individuals that healthcare insurance options exist. This question was important to academics and business professionals, because the strategies employed by business owners may affect job creation.