Date of Conferral







Nicolae Nistor


The academic success of dual language learners (DLLs) has been studied extensively, but few studies have investigated the effectiveness of the Scott Foresman Reading Street (SFRS) program on DLL struggling readers. The purpose of this quantitative study, grounded in the linguistic interdependence theory, was to compare the Measure of Academic Progress Reading Fluency (MAP RF) Rasch Unit (RIT) scores of third grade DLL struggling readers before and after they participated in 1 year of the SFRS program at Commonwealth School in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The RIT scores measure students’ progress between grades. A repeated-measures t test was used to examine changes in MAP-RF test scores after 1 year of SFRS program participation. Archived data from 142 third grade DLL struggling readers after 1 year of SFRS in 2015, 2016, and 2017 were used. The 2016–2017 academic year focused on the intervention group of DLL students with reading difficulties. This group consisted of students who had previously scored between 69% and 60% on the second grade reading test. The findings revealed the final MAP RF scores for male and female DLL struggling readers after the implementation of the SFRS program were significantly higher than those at the start of the year. The discovery of a positive relationship between second language reading fluency and MAP RF scores shows that the SFRS program may influence explicit fluency instruction. Furthermore, this finding could be used to improve educational quality, including academic success, decision making, problem-solving abilities, empathy, and employment prospects, which could lead to positive social change.

Included in

Education Commons