Date of Conferral



Doctor of Public Health (DrPH)


Public Health


Manoj Sharma


By 2040, it is estimated that 642 million people ages 20 to 79 will have Type II diabetes, thereby making it a heavily studied topic among scholars. As more people are diagnosed with Type II diabetes each year, the literature is slowly shifting to long-term complications. However, the many risk and protective factors that exist have created gaps in the literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between participation in diabetes self-management classes, mental health, physical health, BMI, smoking status, exercise, and possible diabetes complications (diabetes-related retinopathy and diabetes-related kidney disease). The gap in the literature was addressed by assessing these variables in relation to the stated complications. The protection motivation theory was the theoretical framework of this research. This cross-sectional study design used the 2020 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) dataset (secondary data), and the data were analyzed using binary and multiple logistic regression models. The results revealed a few statistically significant findings. In the binary logistic regression, results indicated individuals in poor physical health have a 4% increase in odds of developing diabetes-related kidney disease [OR = 1.04, 95% CI (1.01, 1.07), p = 0.01]. In relation to diabetes-related kidney disease, there is a 51% decrease in odds for individuals who exercise [OR = 0.49, 95% CI (0.25, 0.93), p = 0.03]. The other statistically significant values were found among the covariates (race, age, and household income). The significant relationships should support the need for further research with more extensive data samples and targeted data. The opportunities for positive social change include social institutions and cultures, such as the local communities, the healthcare system, and the economic burden of families.