Date of Conferral





Public Health


Nicoletta Alexander


Outbursts of seasonal influenza contribute to morbidity and mortality in the United States. Influenza is a contagious disease caused by influenza viruses. The main subtypes of the influenza virus are Type A and Type B. Influenza vaccines are among the most effective methods in preventing the spread of the influenza virus because they offer the best immune defense. However, health care providers face significant challenges due to low patient compliance with current vaccine recommendations and misinformation. Scholars have yet to expand and further explore the reasons for the gap in influenza vaccination between White individuals and minorities, such as the non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic populations. Following the social cognitive theory as a theoretical framework, the research questions for this study tested the potential association between sociodemographic factors that might predict the lack of flu vaccination in racial minorities living in Chicago, Illinois. A logistical regression and chi-square test were used to answer the research questions. The data analysis showed that, in Chicago, there is a statistically significant association between annual household income, age group, and flu vaccine refusal among racial minorities. This study contributed to filling the gap in the literature regarding the social and environmental factors associated with flu vaccination uptake in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black adults living in the United States. The potential positive social change implications include the insight into how household income and age could relate to health behaviors and flu vaccination hesitancy among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black adults living in the United States and apply this knowledge to future vaccination practice promotion activities.