Date of Conferral







Charles Diebold


AbstractImproving education, particularly for the sciences, is an important and necessary endeavor which can lead to positive social change. Education reform tends to involve updating and aligning curriculum standards without considering methodologies or teaching strategies involved. Identifying evidence-based practices to improve achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) will contribute to improving the education system. Flipped classroom instruction is a pedagogical approach that emphasizes student involvement and engagement in the learning process. There is evidence that active learning strategies improve achievement in STEM academic areas. The purpose of this study was to compare traditional lecture teaching methods to the flipped classroom approach in terms of measures of academic achievement using a meta-analysis. Data for this study measured achievement of flipped and traditional pedagogies in STEM areas. Results from this meta-analysis were not significantly in favor of a flipped approach. However, only one study favored traditional lectures over flipped approaches, while other studies showed a small to moderate effect size in favor of the flipped approach. Implications for positive social change include discussion of effective teaching strategies that promote academic achievement and retention in STEM areas.