Date of Conferral







Don J. Yarosz


The number of English language learners (ELLs) in early childhood education (ECE) continues to increase, particularly with students whose first language (L1) is Spanish. Recent studies have shown the connection between teachers’ self-efficacy and student achievement, but very few specifically address early childhood education teachers’ self-efficacy and knowledge of biliteracy instruction. Grounded in Bandura’s self-efficacy theory and Krashen’s second language acquisition theory, the purpose of this basic qualitative study was to explore kindergarten (K) through third-grade teachers’ perspectives of their self-efficacy and knowledge of biliteracy instruction. Nine K through third-grade teachers responded to an online flyer, completed a demographics questionnaire, and participated in a semi-structured phone interview. Data were analyzed by transcribing interviews, using three-cycle coding data, and deductive theme analysis, which led to distinguishing four themes: (a) knowledge of biliteracy, (b) focus on teaching English, (c) training attended, and (d) resources needed. The results also indicate that teachers perceived themselves to be competent and confident in serving ELLs but indicated the need for more training in biliteracy instruction regardless of them being bilingual or monolingual teachers. These findings have potential positive social change implications by addressing K to third-grade teachers’ needs regarding biliteracy instruction for ELLs. Increasing teachers’ knowledge about biliteracy instruction in their classroom may contribute to increasing ELLs' academic achievements independently of being part of a bilingual or dual language program.