Date of Conferral
Clifton A. Gayne Jr., Ph. D.
The communications media have directed attention to the fact that the United States have a people with time on their hands and have stated that as a people the nation is recognized for work and workmanship, but that individuals do not know how to use wisely leisure time which the shorter workweek, makes possible through science and technology.
Obviously the prevailing leisure problem appears to be one of education, and art education, a part of education, appears to be an area in school where to a degree students can make discoveries and further develop art experiences into self-chosen, enjoyable and meaningful leisure time activities. Educators have studied this problem only in very limited areas of the school curriculum but not in the field of art.
By using the learners themselves at the eighth grade level in classroom units this study was done in the Spring of 1960, and brought up-to-date in August, 1971.
A random sample was drawn, using the Fisher-Yates Table, aiming at from 20-25% of classroom unites from self-contained, platoon, and junior high school eighth grade classes in the St. Paul Public Schools.
Data was gathered in two schedules. In the first schedule was an essay “My Favorite Pastime” based on an outline and an “Activities Time Table” in half hour intervals for a staggered day of the week only. Individuals recorded activities for only one day but randomness produced activities for each of the seven days of the week. In the second schedule were three questionnaires: “A Pupil’s Questionnaire,” a “Teacher’s Questionnaire,” and a paired rand order “Pupil Preference Questionnaire.” On both schedules 100% return was realized.
The null hypothesis, there is no relationship between the art curriculum and leisure time activities at the eighth grade level, was used. Using the chi-square technique at the .001 level of significance, the null hypothesis was rejected. Teacher’s offerings and pupil preferences and teach responses were made for correlations, Person Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r), later transferring the obtained r to z, and then transferring the two z’s back to r by using a table. The probability is .99 that the interval tested contains the true r, again rejecting the null hypothesis. Sex differences by rank was also established.
Based on the findings in the random sample, significant positive comparisons resulted with significant implications. Teachers need to survey students’ leisure time interests within each classroom unit and develop curriculums in terms of individual interests. It became apparent that curricular offerings are geared more to girls than to boys. In developing an art curriculum teachers and curriculum committees can consider the inclusion of activities that appeal to boys’ interests. Broader curriculum and co-curricular offerings need to be planned to meet the needs of the wide and diverse range of interest patterns. Greater consideration should be given by curriculum maters to what students enjoy and do in leisure time. Classroom learning ought to be oriented to the development of leisure time activities for life-long enjoyment, individual fulfillment, and participation. Similar and further leisure time studies should be conducted in order to arrive at a theory of leisure for art education.