Date of Conferral



Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




Anissa Harris


In the southeastern United States, many local school districts have mandated an increased use of instructional technology to address low reading proficiency among English language learners (ELLs). However, local district leaders and stakeholders concurred that additional research was needed to explore how teachers were using technology in their instructional practices for the academic content proficiency of ELLs. The purpose of this qualitative multisite case study was to explore Grade 3–5 teachers’ perceptions of and experiences using instructional technology during reading instruction with ELLs; consequently, the research questions addressed these perceptions and experiences. The substitution, augmentation, redefinition, and modification (SAMR) model was the conceptual framework in this study. The purposeful sample included twelve reading teachers who were required to use technology during classroom instruction and whose classes were more than 51% ELLs. Additionally, each participant had more than two years of ELL teaching experience and either English Second Other Language certification or training in the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol. Data were collected through observations, semistructured interviews, and a document analysis of lesson plans. Using the SAMR model as a lens, the data were thematically analyzed and assigned a priori, open, and axial codes. The findings indicated that teachers may benefit from professional development focused on more effectively implementing reading instructional technology, specifically when modifying or redefining instruction with technology. The implications for positive social change include stakeholders and ELL students benefitting from enhanced reading and transformative instructional practices by directly addressing the instructional practices taking place in elementary ELL classrooms.

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