Date of Conferral







John Schmidt


Little research has focused on developing female African American leaders. A mixed methods study examined the influence of conservation of resources (COR) and locus of control (LOC) on the self-efficacy (SE) of 26 female African American leaders. It also explored the role of mentoring and spirituality in leadership development for a subset of 5 participants. Data were obtained using a demographic questionnaire, the General SE Scale, the COR Evaluation Gain scale, and the LOC Assessment, along with transcribed responses to mentoring and spirituality interview questions. Pearson correlations run between age, education, and income, as well as COR, LOC, and SE scores uncovered an inverse relationship between education and LOC and no other significant associations. A multiple regression analysis determined that COR and LOC did not predict SE among the participants. A qualitative analysis of the coded interview responses by a subset of 5 participants to 10 questions on mentoring and spirituality yielded 5 thematic clusters: (a) mentor link: expertise for guiding mentoring relationship or being a positive role model, (b) mentor value: commitment to personal or professional development, (c) mentor characteristics: qualities of being a good mentor, (d) mentor outcomes: expertise in mentoring and supporting an individual in development, and (e) workplace spirituality: individual desire to live spiritual values in the workplace. The results will foster positive social change by identifying ways to promote the development of female African American leaders.