Date of Conferral





Health Services


Robert E. Hoye


The American Indians population in Minneapolis, Minnesota has experienced limited health care access and threefold diabetes health disparity. The purpose of this study was to measure the extent to which collaborating marketplace clinics and community-based support groups expanded diabetes care and provided self-management education for this largely urban Indian neighborhood. The marketplace clinics located in nearby CVS, Walmart, Target, and Supervalu stores committed financial support, certified educators, and pharmacy staff for the community-based support group. The study was conducted within the patient activation measure (PAM) analytical framework to assess the participants' acquired knowledge, skills, and confidence for diabetes self-management. A case-control study and 3 years retrospective analysis of secondary data were used to test whether the Minneapolis marketplace clinics and the Phillips community diabetes support group participants (n = 48) had improved diabetes health outcomes relative to the control group (n = 87). The intervention group employed motivational interviewing and PAM in coaching diabetes self-care and behavioral modification. The control group received only basic self-management education. T test and Cohen's d effect size measurements were used to quantify the size of the health outcome variables' difference between the study intervention and comparison groups. The positive effects of marketplace clinics and community-based complementation were shown through improved blood sugar control (A1C), weight loss (BMI), and healthful lifestyle changes. Social change progress could be realized by incorporating PAM with diabetes prevention programs for 33 Urban Indian Health Organizations that are located in large cities throughout the United States.