Date of Conferral





Public Health


Peter Anderson


The increased mortality rates from COVID-19 in Brazil have adversely affectedvulnerable populations and placed a severe burden on its public health system as compared to other nations. Focusing on socioeconomic status as a risk factor in this retrospective cohort study, I investigated the association between Brazilian COVID-19 mortality rate, income, school enrollment rate, and employment rate after controlling for the demographics and immunization rate. This is an important issue as an increase in incidence and mortality rates affects how governmental and public health leaders can effectively control and prevent disease spread. Using the fundamental causes of disease theory as the theoretical framework, I evaluated the underlying influence of socioeconomic factors on COVID-19 mortality at different geographic levels (region, state, and capital). Therefore, the foci of these three manuscripts is the need to assess this influence to encourage governmental response through better planning, strategies, and actions toward socioeconomic equality in Brazil, which could promote a reduction in the COVID-19 mortality rate. Most findings do not agree with the theory tested, which can be explained by a series of other factors, such as population density and heterogeneity. Thus, there are still inconsistencies regarding how minority groups are at greater risk of disease contamination and death. The social change implications of this study include a potential increase in opportunities for socioeconomic equality. A decrease in the COVID19 mortality rate could also allow Brazilians to improve individual lives with healthier families and communities.