Date of Conferral







Amy Hakim


Ineffective communication and leadership practices continue to be an ongoing problem within organizations due to executives’ inability to effectively lead and communicate. The primary concern in this study was how junior managers perceive the effectiveness of executives’ communication practices as well as how executives’ leadership styles influence the junior managers. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of junior managers. The leader-member exchange theory provides the framework for this study on exploring junior managers lived experiences and their perceptions on how executives’ leadership styles influence them and their perception of executive’s ability to disseminate top owned information. A qualitative methodology and phenomenological research design were used with a sample size of 10 participants. Participants must have been over 18 years of age, live in the United States, work for company a minimum of 1 year, and have at least 2 years of experience with being a junior manager, and must be a direct report to an executive for at least 1 year. The data were coded and analyzed by using NVivo software to look for themes and commonalities. The key results were that junior managers were highly influenced by executive’s leadership styles and were flexible and willing to adjust to the executive’s communication practices. Executives can benefit from this contribution to positive social change because they will have a better understanding of effective and ineffective leadership styles based on the perceptions and experiences of junior mangers.