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Public Policy and Administration


Lori A. Demeter


In 2009, the federal government of Nigeria under then-President Musa Yar’adua established the Presidential Amnesty Program (PAP), which became their flagship program in combating militancy and turning repentant ex-militants into positively contributing citizens. This is a multi-dimensional problem that involves governmental ineptitude, exploitation by multinational oil companies, and lack of sustainable developmental measures as primary drivers of instability in the Niger Delta. There are arguments that the 2009 PAP Program brought about little positive change in the region. This program brought about peace initially in the region until early 2016, when there was a brief but very destructive return to militancy. The focus of this qualitative research was the effectiveness (or lack) of the 2009 PAP and whether aspects of implementation led to the return to militancy in 2016. The policy feedback theory served as the theoretical framework, and surveys with open-ended questions from twenty-four respondents were used to collect data. Findings demonstrated that though the policy may have been well-designed, the implementation of the reintegration phase has been poor and riddled with corruption, funding shortfalls, and uncertainty. Fundamental problems that birthed militancy like oil pollution, lack of social infrastructures like roads and hospitals largely remain. The identification of the need for periodic, structured feedback mechanisms (like periodic reviews and engagement with stakeholders) will contribute to positive social change through adjustment of policy implementation with resultant improvement in the social and environmental conditions of the Niger Delta region.

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