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Steven G. Little


Abstract The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children has significantly increased since it was first identified in the 1930s. This increase has been attributed to the changes in the reporting practices within the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. To address this increase, many treatments have emerged, including video self-modeling (VSM). VSM has demonstrated efficacy as an intervention in treating a variety of ASD symptoms, ranging from communication deficits to maladaptive behaviors. VSM uses edited video clips that allow a child to watch him or herself successfully performing the targeted skill. To classify VSM as evidence-based practice, research is generally recognized as the most valid source of evidence for determining efficacy especially when synthesized across multiple, high-quality, experimental studies. The present meta-analysis focused on the available literature to determine the efficacy of VSM as an intervention to increase prosocial behaviors in children diagnosed with ASD. The theoretical foundation of VSM and this meta-analysis are based on Bandura’s theories: social learning theory and observational learning theory. The meta-analysis used Cohen’s d and percentage of nonoverlapping data (PND) as metrics of effect size. According to Cohen’s d results (Intervention d = 1.0; Maintenance d =1.5), VSM was found to be an effective intervention for children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD. While analysis of PND failed to provide equally robust findings this can be accounted for by variability of baseline data is some studies. Positive social change implications include support for increasing VSM use with children with ASD should increase individuals’ self-efficacy and independence.

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