Date of Conferral



Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




Salina Shrofel


AbstractCareer and Technology Education (CTE) high school students often exhibit difficulty reaching academic proficiency in English Language Arts (ELA) and math. To address this problem, one local school district developed and implemented an integrated curriculum using explicit instruction of literacy and numeracy in CTE business education courses. Guided by Archer and Hughes’s theory of explicit instruction, the purpose of this ex post facto quasi-experimental study was to determine the difference in ELA and math High School Assessment Program (HSAP) standardized test scores between 10th grade CTE business education students who participated in integrated curriculum business courses and students who had not participated prior to taking the test the first time. Archival ELA and math HSAP test scores for 216 10th grade first-time test-taker CTE business education students from the 2014-2015 school year were analyzed. Independent samples t tests for equal variances not assumed indicated that CTE business education students who participated in the integrated curriculum scored significantly higher on their HSAP tests in ELA (p = .001) and math (p =.003) than students who did not participate. Findings from this study suggest that CTE business education students benefitted from the literacy and numeracy explicit instruction in the integrated curriculum CTE business education courses. With enhanced ELA and math performance, positive social change may occur as CTE business education students are likely to experience greater academic success and improved academic outcomes across all areas of their education.