Date of Conferral



Doctor of Public Health (DrPH)


Public Health


Hebatullah Tawfik


Despite extensive study in adults, Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been the subject of little research concerning young adults or children. Doctors believed T2D to develop only in a person’s later years until health care providers found younger individuals developing this disease. The purpose of this cross-sectional quantitative analysis was to determine correlations between T2D and social determinants of health in Fresno County, California, based on children and adolescents. The 2017-19 data came from the Fresno County Department of Public Health. The theoretical foundation for the study was the socio-ecological framework focusing on individuals’ traits having a bidirectional impact on health. Binominal logistic regression showed associations between age, gender, ethnicity, and place of residence in correlation to the occurrence of T2D. Specific to environment, the greatest disparity was among those residing in suburban communities (OR = 0.593, 95% CI [0.421, 0.835], p < .003) compared to rural or urban neighborhoods. Age and gender were also significant factors among the population of 372 patients with T2D; when age increased, so did the likelihood of T2D (OR = 1.258, 95% CI [1.224, 1.293], p < 0.005), while females were more likely to have a diagnosis than males (OR = 1.499, 95%CI [1.218, 1.844], p < 0.005). Individuals who identified their race/ethnicity as mixed/other had a far greater likelihood of T2D diagnoses (OR = 1.96, 95% CI [1.174, 3.273], p < 0.01) compared to their neighbors. Participants from households with incomes above $40,000 did not show statistically significant results (OR = 0.339, 95% CI [0.084, 1.365], p = 0.128). With further research conducted into T2D in youth and adolescents, understanding of preventative and disease management efforts can aim to improve the quality of life for the overall population leading to positive social change.