Date of Conferral



Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.)




Mohammad S. Hammoud


Small businesses play a critical role in the job creation and overall growth of the U.S. economy; however, many small businesses fail soon after startup. The failure of small businesses results psychological, social, and financial turmoil for small business leaders. Grounded in transformational leadership theory and Chamberlin’s theory of strategy, the purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to explore leadership strategies small business leaders use to sustain their operations beyond 5 years. The participants were five business leaders of five selected small businesses in the Bronx, New York, who used effective leadership strategies to sustain their operations beyond 5 years. Data were collected from semistructured interviews and company documents and were analyzed with thematic data analysis. Five themes emerged: effective communication, assessing employee performance, motivation and recognition, the right leadership, and strategic planning. One key recommendation is that leaders of small businesses implement social media communications such as Twitter and Facebook. The implications for positive social change include the potential to create new jobs and empower the locals socially and economically.