Date of Conferral





Public Policy and Administration


David DiBari


AbstractHate crime in the United States divides people from different ethnic groups, cultures, and races. As such, hate crime continues to pose a threat to the safety of members of society because the crimes are driven by animosity. Hate crimes are believed to be more pernicious than mainstream crimes because they send a message to other members of the group that they are not accepted. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which hate crimes were more injurious to African Americans as compared to other underrepresented groups and the psychological impact hate crimes had on the victims. The theoretical construct for the study was the social dominance theory because the theory relied on threats, violence, and intimidation as a means of controlling others. Statistical data were collected from the FBI, Department of Justice, and The National Victimization Survey for 2016. Results of the quantitative study indicated that hate crimes are more injurious for African Americans than for any other underrepresented group, and victims who reported race as the motive behind the crime also experienced more emotional trauma than victims who reported ethnicity and gender as the motive. The results of the study may subsequently promote positive social change concerning prosecution and penalty enhancement.