Date of Conferral





Public Health


Dr. Raymond Panas


Due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE), infections among residents are increasing in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), resulting in high rate of morbidity and healthcare costs. ESBL-PE resists empirical antibiotics and reduces treatment options, and a designated infection control team is unavailable to prevent the prevalence of the disease. Ecological theory guided this study. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to characterize the causes of ESBL-PE and evaluate the infection control strategies within LTCFs. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) was included as supplementary statistical analysis to identify relationships between LTCFs, geographical locations, infection control measures (ICMs), and ESBL-PE. A systematic search was conducted for studies from January 2008 to December 2018. Twenty-two from 3,106 met the inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence for ESBL-PE among LTCFs residents was a mean difference (MD) of 15.78 (95% CI: 0.04, 31.53). Risk factors included the influence of regional areas was standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.61(95 % CI: 0.32, 0.91) in Europe, SMD was 14.92 (95% CI: 9.17, 20.68) in Asia, and SMD was 0.51(95% CI: 0.35, 0.67) in other regions (North America and Australia). Nine of 22 studies reported ICMs was MD of 13.59 (95% CI: 5.32, 21.86). Meta-analysis and MRA revealed a statistically significant association between LTCF and ESBL-PE among residents (p= 0.05). Strict adherence to infection control measures in LTCFs is needed to address this ESBL-PE prevalence among residents. The potential positive social change is promoting knowledge about vulnerable residents in LTCFs and the community factors responsible for ESBL infection.