Date of Conferral







Elisabeth Weinbaum


Federal inclusion law requires that school administrators provide an equitable and legally compliant inclusive education for all students. Previous research has shown that successful program delivery is not possible without efficacious school leadership. Prior studies have also revealed that principals’ self-efficacy judgments are directly influenced by contextual and personal factors. Limited research-based inquiries have explored which factors contribute to administrator confidence as it relates to successfully implementing inclusive educational programs in particular. Grounded in social cognitive theory, the purpose of this nonexperimental, survey-based, quantitative study was to assess the extent to which facets of elementary school principals’ educational background, experience, and training, along with time spent on inclusion-related activities, predict their efficacy for successful inclusive program delivery in their schools. Data for the study were collected through a demographic questionnaire and an online survey of elementary school principals in a large northeastern state (N = 104) and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a multivariate multiple linear regression. Results revealed that the overall model was significant (p < .05) and that years as a special educator and years as a principal were significant predictors of the aggregate outcome variable. The findings shed light on the intricate personal and contextual variables that influence principals’ efficacy beliefs for administering inclusive education programs. Understanding the factors that facilitate robust levels of confidence among administrators may be used to inform principal educational and professional preparation programs that may contribute to positive social change in the field of education.